Where does the influenza attack?
Where does the influenza attack?
Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs.
What tissue does influenza infect?
Influenza virus infects respiratory epithelial cells that line the upper (including nasal) through lower (to the alveoli) respiratory tract. A key parameter in determining the extent of associated disease is the degree to which the lower respiratory tract becomes invaded by the virus .
What kind of cells does influenza B infect?
The influenza virus attacks epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract, with the potential for secondary bacterial infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
What type of host cell does influenza target?
IAVs Target and Enter Host Cells Influenza A viruses primarily target and infect airway and alveolar epithelial cells, which contain the SA glycans as receptors, thus causing alveolar epithelial injury and eventually failure of gas exchange (30, 31).
How does influenza enter the cell?
The influenza virus enters the host cell by having its hemagglutinin bind to the sialic acid found on glycoproteins or glycolipid receptors of the host. The cell then endocytoses the virus. In the acidic environment of the endosomes, the virus changes shape and fuses its envelope with the endosomal membrane.
Where is influenza virus located in the body?
Influenza virus causes an infection in the respiratory tract, or nose, throat and lungs. The virus is inhaled or transmitted, usually via your fingers, to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose or eyes.
What is the epidemiology of influenza?
Yearly influenza epidemics can affect all populations, but children younger than the age of two, adults older than 65, as well as people with chronic medical conditions or weakened immune systems, bear the highest risk of complications. The annual attack rate is estimated at 5–10% in adults and 20–30% in children.
Does influenza lyse the cell?
In addition to the neutralization of cell-free virus by antibodies to HA and the interference of virus release from infected cells by antibodies to neuraminidase (NA), influenza virus-specific antibodies bind to infected cells and are able to lyse the virus-infected cells through activation of complement (complement- …
Is influenza B DNA or RNA?
Genome structure and genetics The Influenza B virus genome is 14,548 nucleotides long and consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. The multipartite genome is encapsidated, each segment in a separate nucleocapsid, and the nucleocapsids are surrounded by one envelope.
Is influenza an RNA virus?
Coronaviruses and influenza viruses are both enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses, and both are encapsidated by nucleoprotein. However, the genomes of these 2 viruses differ in polarity and segmentation. Influenza virus is comprised of 8 single-stranded, negative-sense, viral RNA segments.
Does influenza virus lyse cells?
What cell receptor does influenza virus bind?
Sialic acids (SAs) of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids are the receptors for the influenza virus, recognized by the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA; Figure 1). The site on HA at which the cellular receptors are bound is at the distal end of the molecule.