Users' questions

What does section 3 of the Voting Rights Act mean?

What does section 3 of the Voting Rights Act mean?

Section 3 and Section 8 of the VRA give the federal courts and the Attorney General, respectively, authority to certify counties for the assignment of federal observers. Federal observers are assigned to polling places so they can monitor election-day practices in response to concerns about compliance with the VRA.

What happened to the 1965 Voting Rights Act?

It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting. This “act to enforce the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution” was signed into law 95 years after the amendment was ratified.

What are the Gingles preconditions?

Under the Gingles test, plaintiffs must show the existence of three preconditions: The racial or language minority group “sufficiently large and geographically compact to constitute a majority in a single-member district”; The minority group is “politically cohesive” (meaning its members tend to vote similarly); and.

What is Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

When Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, it determined that racial discrimination in voting had been more prevalent in certain areas of the country. Section 4(a) of the Act established a formula to identify those areas and to provide for more stringent remedies where appropriate.

What is Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act?

Under Section 5, any change with respect to voting in a covered jurisdiction — or any political subunit within it — cannot legally be enforced unless and until the jurisdiction first obtains the requisite determination by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or makes a submission to the …

What does Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act say?

As amended in 1982, Section 2 prohibits voting practices that result in citizens being denied equal access to the political process on account of race, color, or membership in a language minority group.

What is the significance of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 quizlet?

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

What did the Miller v Johnson decision state?

The United States Supreme Court affirmed the trial court’s finding. It held that the redistricting was so bizarre on its face that it was unexplainable on grounds other than race and therefore it could not be upheld unless it was narrowly tailored to achieve a compelling state interest.

Who won Cooper Harris?

Harris, 581 U.S. ___ (2017), is a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the Court ruled 5–3 that the North Carolina General Assembly used race too heavily in re-drawing two Congressional districts following the 2010 Census. At issue in particular were the 1st and 12th districts.

What is the purpose of Section 5?

Section 5 was designed to ensure that voting changes in covered jurisdictions could not be implemented used until a favorable determination has been obtained. The requirement was enacted in 1965 as temporary legislation, to expire in five years, and applicable only to certain states.

What is Section 4 and 5 of the Voting Rights Act?

By a vote of 5-4, the court ruled that Section 4, which used data from the 1960s and 1970s to provide a “coverage formula” for Section 5, could “no longer be used.” Section 4 set out the formula to determine which states and regions discriminated against voters based on race or had low voter registration.

Who passed the Civil Rights Act of 1965?

How to use citation info. This act was signed into law on August 6, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.

When did Section 203 of the VRA start?

The language provisions of the VRA were introduced in the 1975 reauthorization with the first listing of Section 203 covered jurisdictions being issued following the 1980 Census. The determinations were released again following the 1990 and 2000 Census as prescribed by law.

Who was the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee in 1965?

Emanuel Celler (D-NY), Chair of the House Judiciary Committee, introduced the Voting Rights Act in the House of Representatives on March 19, 1965 as H.R. 6400. The House Judiciary Committee was the first committee to consider the bill.

Who are the language minority groups in Section 203?

The language minority groups covered by Section 203 are those that speak Asian, American Indian, Alaska Native, and Spanish languages. Determinations for each state, county or county subdivision (depending on which is the operating level of government), andu000bAmerican Indian/Alaska Native Areas (AIA/ANA), are then computed based on the following: