What causes low sodium levels in newborns?

What causes low sodium levels in newborns?

The most frequent cause of neonatal hyponatremia is hypovolemic dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or both. When fluid loses are replaced with fluids that have little or no sodium (eg, some juices), hyponatremia can result.

What causes high sodium levels in newborn babies?

Excess sodium intake in newborns could be a result of an infusion of sodium bicarbonate or the improper preparation of formula or oral rehydration solution. Many case reports have attributed BFHD to high sodium content in breast milk; it also can be attributed to low breast milk production in a mother.

What does low sodium mean in babies?

Hyponatremia is an electrolyte abnormality that occurs in infancy due to a variety of inherited and acquired disorders. Infants with hyponatremia can present with neurologic symptoms such as vomiting, weakness, and seizures.

What is the normal sodium level for a child?

The normal range for blood sodium levels is 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Is Low sodium common in newborns?

Preterm infants are prone to hyponatremia because of a lower glomerular filtration rate, lower proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium, and an increase arginine vasopressin level when sick. Often very low birthweight infants show increased renal tubular sodium and water loss causing hyponatremia.

How do you fix hyponatremia in infants?

Treatment of neonatal hyponatremia is with 5% D/0.45% to 0.9% saline solution IV in volumes equal to the calculated deficit, given over as many days as it takes to correct the sodium concentration by no more than 10 to 12 mEq/L/day (10 to 12 mmol/L/day) to avoid rapid fluid shifts in the brain.

Why are babies and small children at greater risk for hyponatremia?

In addition, children are at higher risk than adults for developing symptomatic hyponatremia because they have a higher brain-to-intracranial volume ratio. Although the brain reaches adult size by age 6 years, the skull is not fully grown until age 16 years.

How fast can sodium be corrected?

In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia, the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours. A bolus of 100 to 150 mL of hypertonic 3% saline can be given to correct severe hyponatremia.

What are the dangers of low sodium levels?

A low level of blood sodium is a sign that your body’s concentration of electrolytes has changed. This condition, which is called hyponatremia , can lead to several dangerous health problems. Early signs of low sodium levels are difficult to diagnose, but can progress to cause brain swelling, brain damage and possibly death when left untreated.

What meds can cause high sodium?

Certain medications, such as diuretics and laxatives, may also increase your risk of dehydration and elevated blood sodium levels. People with an impaired thirst mechanism, such as people with brain damage or the elderly, are also at risk of developing hypernatremia .

What to do if you have low sodium levels?

Intravenous Fluids. Intravenous fluids in the form of isotonic saline are used to treat more severe cases of low sodium levels. An isotonic saline solution has a similar concentration of saline, or salt, as the concentration of saline in body fluids. This helps stabilize sodium levels.

What causes decreased sodium?

Causes of low sodium include: severe vomiting or diarrhea. taking certain medications, including antidepressants and pain medications. taking diuretics (water pills) drinking too much water during exercise (this is very rare) dehydration.