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How Shikonin is produced?

How Shikonin is produced?

Shikonin (Fig. 17.7) is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone found in the dried root of the plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Shikonin is the first natural colorant that has been commercially produced by a plant cell culture method to supply the cosmetic industry in Japan since 1983 (Fujita et al., 1983; Singh, 2010).

Where does shikonin come from?

The naphthoquinone-type natural product shikonin was derived from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which has broad applications in Traditional Chinese Medicine [13, 14]. Over the past few decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple biological effects of shikonin.

What do you mean by hairy root culture?

Hairy root culture, also called transformed root culture, is a type of plant tissue culture that is used to study plant metabolic processes or to produce valuable secondary metabolites or recombinant proteins, often with plant genetic engineering.

What part of cellular respiration is affected by shikonin?

The primary effect of shikonin is the direct targeting of mitochondria, which causes a dose-dependent overproduction of ROS and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, leading to breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

Which bacteria is useful in hairy root culture?

Hairy roots derived from the infection of a plant by Rhizobium rhizogenes (previously referred to as Agrobacterium rhizogenes) bacteria, can be obtained from a wide variety of plants and allow the production of highly diverse molecules.

What is hairy root transformation?

Why are some roots hairy?

Hairy roots in plants are the manifestation of infection caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, a gram negative soil bacterium. Such new hormonal balances induce the formation of proliferating roots, called hairy roots that emerge at the wounding site.

What are hairy root culture used for?

What is hairy root syndrome?

Hairy root syndrome is caused by the soil bacterium A. rhizogenes, resulting in the so-called hairy root disease (Figs 7.12 and 7.13). After infection with bacteria, hairy root accumulates the same component as accumulated by the roots of the intact plants and attains rapid growth in hormone-free medium.

Which bacteria is capable to induce hairy root symptoms?

Agrobacterium rhizogenes induces formation of hypertrophies with a hairy-root appearance referred to as ‘hairy-root’ disease.

How is Shikonin used in the real world?

Practical applications: Shikonin is a naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinone and extensive scientific research (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials) has been conducted during the last years, focusing on its effectiveness on several tumors and mechanism (s) of antitumor action.

How is Shikonin used in the treatment of cancer?

Shikonin preferentially inhibits the growth of human epidermoid carcinoma cells concentration- and time-dependently compared to SV-40 transfected keratinocytes, demonstrating its anti-proliferative effects against this cancer cell line.

Can a liposome reduce the side effects of Shikonin?

Thus, liposomes could reduce shikonin’s side effects, enhance selectivity to cancer cells and protect shikonin from internal biotransformations and instability matters (oxidization and polymerization).